Java Characters

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In Java, characters are represented by the primitive data type char. A char can hold a single Unicode character, which includes ASCII characters, as well as characters from many other writing systems.

Here are some important facts about char in Java:

  • A char is a 16-bit unsigned integer that can represent any character in the Unicode standard.
  • You can assign a char a value using a single character enclosed in single quotes, like this: char myChar = 'a';
  • You can also assign a char a value using its Unicode code point, like this: char myChar = '\u0061'; (which is the Unicode code point for the character ‘a’).
  • There are several special escape sequences that can be used to represent characters that cannot be easily typed, such as newline (\n), tab (\t), and Unicode characters represented by their hex value, such as \u00E9 for the character é.
  • char values can be compared using standard relational operators (<, <=, >, >=), which compare the Unicode code points of the characters.

Here’s an example that demonstrates some of these concepts:

char myChar = 'a';
char newline = '\n';
char accentedE = '\u00E9';
System.out.println(myChar);
System.out.println(newline);
System.out.println(accentedE);
System.out.println('a' < 'b'); // prints "true"
System.out.println('A' < 'a'); // prints "true"

This code declares a char variable called myChar and assigns it the value 'a'. It also declares two more char variables, newline and accentedE, and assigns them values using special escape sequences and a Unicode code point, respectively. The code then prints out these characters and some comparisons of char values using the < operator.

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