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HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) and XHTML (Extensible Hypertext Markup Language) are both markup languages used for creating web pages, but they have some significant differences.

  1. Syntax: HTML is a markup language that follows a more relaxed syntax than XHTML. XHTML, on the other hand, follows a stricter syntax similar to XML.
  2. Tag handling: HTML allows for more flexibility in tag handling. It allows tags to be opened but not closed, while XHTML requires all tags to be properly closed.
  3. Case sensitivity: HTML is case-insensitive, meaning it doesn’t matter whether you use uppercase or lowercase letters for tags and attributes. XHTML is case-sensitive, and it requires all tags and attributes to be in lowercase.
  4. Parsing: HTML has some ambiguity in its syntax, which can cause issues for web browsers and parsers. XHTML, with its stricter syntax, can be parsed more reliably.
  5. MIME type: HTML uses the MIME type “text/html,” while XHTML uses “application/xhtml+xml.”
  6. Legacy support: HTML has been around since the early days of the web and has a lot of legacy support. XHTML is relatively new and may not be supported by some older browsers and devices.

In summary, XHTML is a stricter and more standardized version of HTML that follows XML rules. It is designed to be more reliable and extensible than HTML, but it requires a higher level of compliance and can be less forgiving than HTML. HTML is more flexible and forgiving, making it easier to work with, but it can also be more error-prone. Ultimately, the choice between HTML and XHTML depends on the needs and requirements of your project.

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